Summary of The Hindu 18th DECEMBER 2023

Global coal demand likely to decline by 2.3% by 2036 : IEA

A recent report on Coal by International Energy Agency ( IEA ) has said that despite production of coal reaching a record high this year , the production of coal is going to decline by 2026 .

The report has following main points

     Global demand of coal rising by 1.4% in 2023 , surpassing 8.5 billion tonnes

     Demand in EU and USA is expected to fall by 20% in 2023 , while it is expected to rise 8% in India and 5% in China .

Fossil fuel emission is one of the main reasons behind global warming , Developing countries like India and China has to increase their coal production because of increasing demand of power .

‘ Kashi Tamil Sangamam is strengthening the idea of Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat

PM Modi inaugurated second Kashi Tamil Sangamam in Varanasi on Sunday . On this occasion PM Modi said that with this Samgam , the idea of Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat is getting strengthened .PM Modi in his speech highlighted how saints from Southern India like Adi Sankaracharya and Ramanujacharya visited Kashi .


The programme is organized by Ministry of Education , celebrates , reaffirms and rediscovers age old link between Varanasi and TamilNadu . BHU and IIT Madras jas joined hands for success of Samgam.


PM  inaugurates Surat Diamond Bourse in Gujarat , says it will add 1.5 lakh more jobs

PM Narendra Modi on Sunday inaugurated Surat Diamond Bourse ( SDB ) , the world’s largest and international center  for Diamond business , and Jewellery business .

SDB is made in an area of 67 lakh square feet . It has nine buildings of 15 floors each . With offices ranging from 300 square feet to 75000 square feet , it is aimed at shifting diamond business from Mumbai to Surat .

Inaugurating  SDB PM Modi said “ Surat Diamond business provides employment to eight lakh people and with coming of new diamond bourse , 1.5 lakh more jobs will be added . “

Surat is hub of diamond cutting and Polishing in India . But the industry currently is facing crisis due to Global economic slowdown and G7 tough stance on Russian Diamond s.


PM Modi also inaugurated new terminal building of Surat Airport . Surat Airport has recently been given international Airport status . With this Gujrat has now 3 working International Airports in the name of Ahmedabad , Rajkot ,  Surat .  Dholera International Airport is still in construction stage .


Indigenously built Unit 4 at Kakrapar attains critically

The fourth unit of Kakrapar Atomic Power project ( KAPP ) project in Gujrat started controlled fission chain reaction and thus became critical on Sunday . Kakrapar is about 80 km from Surat .

Unit four of Kakrapar plant has capacity of 700 MWe each and and are among the largest nuclear power reactors ever built . The previous highest capacity of  indigenously built reactor was 540 MWe

Cyberthreats : Center sets up secure email Network for staff of critical department

In the wake up of cyberattacks , government has set up a secure email Network for 10,000 users in critical ministries and department , a senior govt officials has said , The email service has been designed by NIC ( National Informatics Center ) and will be managed by Zoho , a India based software maker .

In these emails along with User name and password  , facial recognition of  biometrics will be required

SCs were never counted in Andaman : now a house committee sits up and takes notice

The Parliamentary Committee on Welfare of SCs and STs has headed by BJP MP Kirit Prem Bhai Solanki has noted that  there is a “ significance presence of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribe  in the Andman and Nicobar islands “ suggesting that they should be considered for welfare schemes and services matters .

Dalits in Andman and Nicobar has been clubbed into Othee Backward Class ( OBC ) , category by Union territory administration .

Decades after Parliamentary panel has called for a special panel to sort out the issue faced by SCs here


Over 60 feared dead as migrant vessel capsizes of the coast  Libya, says UN

 A boat carrying 86 migrants capsized near Zuwara town in western Libya . 61 migrants died because of drowonig . The figures was released by UN human rights commission .

Mediteranean route through Libya is one of the major routes for migrants from Africa trying to enter Europe .

Problem with Migrants

 Many times , because of lack of good boats and overcrowding the boats the ships capsizes leaving many dead .

More than 2250 have died on the central Europe route this year . About 14,900 migrants have been intercepted and returned to Libiya this year .

Kuwait’s Emir Sheikh Nawaf laid to rest in low key ceremony

Kuwait’s Emir Sheikh Nawaf who died on Sunday has been buried in alow key affair

. Representatives from Around the world has arrived . From India Petrolum Minister , Hardeep Singh Puri arrived in Kuwait . Mr. Puri will deliver letter of condolences from Prime Minister side

Text and Context

On selecting Election Commissioner

On December 12 Rajya Sabha passes the Chief Election Commissioner ( CEC ) and Election Commisioner ( EC ) appointment bill , 2023 . It provides procedure for appointment of CEC and EC .

What does the constitution say?

Article 324 talks about appointment of CEC and EC . Constitution says that appointment will be subject to law made by  Parliament .

The appointment till now was made by government .

Ruling of SC ?

A PIL was filed which was concerned about the independence of EC and CEC . SC held directed govt to make any law about the appointment of EC and CEC , and till the law is made a committee of PM , Leader of Opposition and Chief Justice of India .

What does proposed law provide

The law proposes CEC and EC to be appointed by President on recommendation of a  selection committee , committee consists of PM , Leader of Opposition in Lok Sabha and A Union Minister appointed by PM .

Leaving CJI from selection committee is one of the reasons it is being criticized .  Two members from govt is other point of criticism .

An Overview to European Union’s Artificial Intelligence Act

EU has implemented its own act on AI , to promote innovation and tackle ethical issues with AI , so that AI use be responsible .

Strength and Limitations of the Act

     AI application has been categorised into different risk levels from , ranging from unacceptable to low

     AI practices that were deemed unacceptable are : social credit scoring system for government purposes. , Predictive Policing applications , and AI systems that manipulative individuals such as emotional recognition system at work or education ,

     It require developers to give clear instructions about transperancy and accountability of AI


     Higher risk AI applications like Medical devices , biometric identification and access to justice and Services mist undergo assessment processes conducted by a third party entities , 

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